Being one of the most common pathologies, hypoxia of the brain in newborns is a lack of oxygen, which can be observed in the fetus throughout pregnancy (chronic form of the disease), and can occur immediately during childbirth (acute form of the disease). It happens that such a baby’s condition leads to its disability and even death. Due to the lack of oxygen, the work of many small organism systems is disrupted, and the central nervous system, heart, lungs, kidneys, or liver are affected first of all. Therefore, it is important to do everything possible in order to first prevent and then to treat this terrible disease in time.
Causes of hypoxia
To prevent a disease, you need to know about the causes that can cause such a condition. If the future mother can be protected from them, there is a chance that this trouble will not affect the child. Many factors really depend on the behavior and health of the woman. The first two groups of causes lead to the chronic form of the disease, and she finds herself during pregnancy. The latter group of factors provokes an acute form of hypoxia, which is diagnosed only after childbirth.
Health problems of the future mother:
- diseases of the cardiovascular system (heart disease, hypotension, hypertension, vegetative-vascular dystonia);
- broncho-pulmonary diseases;
- infection of the genitourinary system;
- age threshold below 18 or over 35 years;
- non-compliance with the daily regimen and proper lifestyle: frequent stress, lack of sleep, lack of fresh air, poor nutrition;
- bad habits (alcoholism, drug addiction, smoking);
- endocrine disruption.
Pathology of pregnancy:
- pathology of the placenta (abruption, early aging, previa);
- toxicosis in the last months of pregnancy;
- umbilical cord pathologists (knots, entanglement);
- early childbirth;
- threat of interruption;
- low water / high water;
- pathology in the development of the fetus.
Problems at birth:
- protracted / difficult labor;
- cord entanglement;
- cesarean section;
- early childbirth;
- large fruit;
- birth trauma;
- the use of various tools (eg tongs);
- the use of medical drugs.
An extensive list of reasons shows that the hypoxia of the newborn can be to blame for both the mother who did not observe the medical prescriptions for the normal course of the pregnancy, and the doctors who unprofessionally showed themselves at birth. In some cases, a confluence of circumstances occurs, somewhere the mother’s painful organism cannot cope with such difficult processes as childbearing and childbirth.
Hypoxia can be detected already during pregnancy (for more details, read the previous article), and appropriate measures should be taken on the proper treatment of the baby. However, very often the diagnosis is made after childbirth. How to find out if a child develops oxygen deficiency?
Symptoms and signs
Hypoxia in the newborn most often has pronounced symptoms, which is not difficult for making an accurate, correct diagnosis immediately after the birth of the baby. This allows time to start treatment and cope with the disease. The main symptoms of hypoxia in newborns are:
- tachycardia (contraction of the heart occurs with an increased frequency);
- bradycardia (inverse indicator - a significant decrease in the frequency of cardiac muscle contraction);
- arrhythmia (heart rhythm disturbance);
- the presence in the amniotic fluid meconium;
- heart murmur;
- hypovolemia (small blood volume);
- the formation of blood clots in the vessels, which entail tissue hemorrhages.
Doctors distinguish several degrees of hypoxia, using a special Apgar scale. She assesses how fully the systems of a small organism function:
- 8-10 points - excellent condition of the newborn, which does not face any hypoxia;
- 7-6 points - hypoxia of the 1st degree, a mild form of the disease;
- 5-4 points - hypoxia of the 2nd degree, medium form;
- 3-0 points - Hypoxia of the 3rd degree, severe form.
A mild degree is characterized by a gradual improvement in the condition of the newborn immediately, within a few minutes. The second degree may require several days to fully restore the normal functions of a small organism. The third requires full treatment, which includes measures for primary resuscitation and subsequent care.
Treatment of hypoxia in infants
From the sequence of medical actions and the professionalism of physicians will depend on the further recovery of the baby. Proper treatment of hypoxia in newborns involves the following set of measures:
- restoration of normal respiration: purification of the respiratory tract, oral and nasal cavities from mucus;
- warming the child with heaters and a special table;
- use of drugs to stimulate blood circulation and restore breathing;
- the use of an oxygen mask if the baby’s breathing could not be restored;
- in severe condition the child is placed in a pressure chamber.
When the symptoms of hypoxia in newborns disappear, discharge from the hospital takes place. The recovery period requires constant observation not only from the district pediatrician, but also from the neuropathologist. We'll have to protect the crumbs from the slightest stress, carefully monitor his diet and sleep patterns. Often prescribed therapeutic massage, soothing baths and aromatherapy sessions.
In severe forms, the treatment of hypoxia in infants involves the appointment of medication: sedatives and stimulants of the heart and brain activity. When late detection of the disease or late treatment hypoxia can lead to dire consequences for the health of the baby.
What is dangerous hypoxia in newborns?
Most often, the effects of hypoxia in newborns depend on the degree of the disease. The first passes quickly, without affecting the health of the baby at all. The second will be fraught with temporary slow and depressed reflexes, but these consequences will soon pass away, also leaving no trace on the health of the child. At the third degree can be observed:
- sleep disturbance;
- muscle cramps;
- delay in mental and physical development;
- disorders in the brain;
Death with today's level of medicine is an exception. Chronic and acute hypoxia today is a very common problem that doctors quite successfully cope with, completely eliminating or minimizing its consequences.