Vaccination against rubella, measles, parotitis: features and contraindications

Measles, rubella, mumps - infectious diseases that pose a risk to human health. They can cause damage to the central nervous system, encephalitis, meningitis, hearing loss, blindness. If the rubella becomes pregnant, the child is often born with deformities and pathologies. Parotitis during pregnancy provokes miscarriage in 25% of women.

Comprehensive vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps (one vaccine against three infections at once) allows you to enter the immunobiological preparation in the child's body. It will prevent future infections with these infections, which means it will save the baby from real danger. Therefore, it is so important for parents to know a maximum of detailed information about this vaccination.

At what age

It is very important not to miss vaccination, so that it is carried out in accordance with the schedule of vaccinations against these infectious diseases. Doctors should educate parents in advance when they are being vaccinated against rubella, measles and mumps. The vaccine is administered three times: in infancy, on the eve of school and in adolescence. Repeated administration of the drug is called booster. A typical calendar for rubella, measles and mumps vaccinations is as follows:

Repeated administration of the drug is due to the fact that not all children form immunity to these infections after the first vaccination. In addition, in this case there is such a thing as a term. Time passes, and artificially acquired immunity tends to weaken. Therefore, parents are advised to know exactly how much the rubella, parotitis and measles vaccination works, referring to this calendar so as not to miss the next one. In adolescence revaccination is necessary for several reasons at once:

  1. Extension of protection for girls who over the next few (5-10) years will give birth to children for whom rubella and parotitis viruses are dangerous during intrauterine development.
  2. Immunity against measles is successfully activated when it encounters a vaccine virus.
  3. Extending the protection for boys, for whom parotitis is extremely undesirable at this age (one of the complications of this disease for men is infertility).

If the child has not been vaccinated for some reason, he will be vaccinated at the age of 13. On average, the duration of vaccination against parotitis, measles and rubella is about 10 years: it is with such frequency that the population is vaccinated. However, during outbreaks of infection, vaccinations are put on an unplanned basis, which makes it possible to extinguish foci of disease.

Vaccination site

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Since, for the first time, the vaccination is given to a very small child, parents are worried about where they are being vaccinated against rubella. Here are their own medical rules:

  • in 12 months the drug is injected into the thigh, namely in its outer surface;
  • in other cases - in the shoulder muscle.

The choice of these sites for vaccinations is not accidental: there is a thin skin, the muscles closely adjoin its surface, there is no subcutaneous fat at all. If the vaccine gets into the fat layer, it will lose its beneficial, healing properties. Buttocks do not make it, because in this place the muscles are deep, the fatty layer under the skin is powerful, there is a risk to touch the sensitive sciatic nerve.

Contraindications

Unfortunately, not all children can be vaccinated with this vaccine. There are a number of contraindications, because of which these vaccinations can, unfortunately, be postponed indefinitely, and may be banned for life. Temporary contraindications for vaccination include:

  • acute course of disease (you can put a vaccine immediately after recovery);
  • pregnancy (vaccination is carried out immediately after birth);
  • simultaneous administration of blood products (vaccination done only after a month).

There are also permanent contraindications, which include:

  • allergic reaction to some medications (neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin);
  • egg white allergy;
  • neoplasms;
  • complications after the last vaccine.

In these cases, vaccination is not carried out at all, so as not to worsen the condition of the child with complications.

Complications

Complications after measles, rubella, parotitis vaccinations are rare, but still occur. Among them:

  • allergic reactions - anaphylactic shock, urticaria, severe edema at the injection site;
  • encephalitis;
  • serous aseptic meningitis;
  • decrease (temporary) platelets in the blood;
  • pneumonia;
  • abdominal pain;
  • glomerulonephritis;
  • toxic shock syndrome.

In such severe cases, it is necessary to urgently seek help from doctors. After a thorough medical examination, it is likely that contraindications will be revealed for further vaccination of the child. However, not only complications can react a small body to the vaccine. The consequences suggest a number of side effects.

Reaction to vaccination (consequences)

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Typically, side effects after vaccination measles, rubella, parotitis are very scary parents, although doctors immediately warn about them and inform that this is a normal reaction of a small organism. This means that the immunity of the child is actively working. This is not a pathology, it is not necessary to carry out any treatment; in this case, there is no point in refusing this vaccination. These side effects include:

  • a small rash appears on the body after rubella vaccination;
  • runny nose;
  • temperature rise;
  • joint pains;
  • cough;
  • discomfort at the injection site.

These side effects should occur from 5 to 15 days after administration of the vaccine. If symptoms do not fit within the specified period after immunization, they are not associated with it.

Rubella vaccination and pregnancy

During pregnancy, all infections pose a threat to gestation. Rubella virus for the unborn child is considered particularly dangerous. Through the placenta, it penetrates to the infant, affects it, leads to death, causes pathology and deformity. Therefore, a rubella vaccination before pregnancy should be made in advance in order to protect a child who is not yet conceived and himself. In the period of carrying a baby this will be no longer possible: only after giving birth. Well, when parents think about it even when planning a pregnancy: vaccination in this case is the most successful. Immunity of the future mom strengthens, and the baby is not in danger. Moreover, pregnancy after vaccination against rubella proceeds calmly, without complications and pathologies.

Vaccines

Vaccination against measles, rubella, parotitis is of several types. They depend on the type of viruses included in the vaccine. All of them are high quality, safe, effective and interchangeable. In addition, distinguish:

  • three-component vaccine - a drug containing three types of viruses;
  • Dicomponent - combination vaccine against any two diseases;
  • monocomponent - a vaccine against only one infection.

Depending on the country of origin, domestic and imported drugs are distinguished.

  1. Patriotic
  • dignity: prepared on the basis of Japanese quail eggs;
  • flaw: There are no three-component drugs, so the injection has to be done twice.
  1. Imported
  • dignity: easy to use, as it is a three-component;
  • flaw: not always available to the average man;
  • stamps: MMR-II (America, Holland), Priorix (Belgium); Ervevaks (England).

Complex triple vaccination measles, rubella, parotitis is designed to protect against potentially dangerous infections in children and adults.

Watch the video: October 2017 ACIP Meeting - Mumps; Vaccine Safety; Human Papillomavirus HPV Vaccines Update (April 2020).

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