Diagnosis and treatment of the disease of cleft palate in children

Not all children are born healthy. Often, right after birth, certain problems are found. They are associated with the violation of the work of certain bodies. Some are subject to cure, well, with some have to live all my life.

According to statistics, 0.1 percent of all children born are born with a cleft palate, a slightly larger number is characterized by a hare lip. All this is considered congenital malformations in which the skin of the face suffers.

Even an inexperienced person can identify such a defect only by looking at the child. Most often, this problem is observed in girls. It leads to a violation of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract.

What is cleft lip and cleft palate?

The problem called cleft palate or cleft lip is formed even in the mother's stomach. It is there that the fetus, its head and lips are formed. These two defects have a similar character, but look a little different.

They still have some distinctive differences:

  1. Cleft lip - the least severe violation of the tissue cavity.
    When it occurs, the deformation of the upper lip and nasophalus, as a result of which the so-called accretion occurs. Often it looks like a slit on the upper lip. It can be both stronger and more obvious, as well as less pronounced.
  2. Wolf's mouth looks much more serious.
    It is a non-growth of soft and hard tissue of the upper palate.

Varieties of the disease wolf's mouth.

The hare lip and the wolf mouth are very easy to distinguish between themselves. As a rule, the last variety is most pronounced and dangerous to health. The wolf's mouth in most cases leads to death, because the child does not improve the normal functioning of all organs.

The hare lip very often has a barely pronounced color. You can note that on the upper lip of some people there is a bright cleft, which in no way interferes with its vital activity.

Wolf's mouth can be different characters. It is expressed as a strong and bright color, and less noticeable.

For example, cleft palate happens:

  • hidden - the most invisible option, in which the splitting of only the soft palate with the presence of connective tissue in the skin and mucous membranes;
  • incomplete - the upper part of the sky is split completely;
  • complete - the most extreme stage in which the upper section splits strictly to the front incisor.

It is not uncommon for a newborn to have both a cleft lip and cleft palate.

These are the situations in which the child begins to experience great anxiety from birth. It is often difficult for him to breathe and eat on his own. In this regard, doctors and parents sometimes wonder how to feed and care for a child.

Causes

Pathologies in a newborn are terrible and serious diseases that no mother wants for her child. However, when a baby has such defects at birth, everyone wants to know what the reason could lie at the base.

In fact, they are a large number. But still the most common is the way of life of the mother. The baby has been in the womb of a woman for a long time. It is there that he gets the right nutrition and protection.

If mother all this time leads an unfavorable lifestyle, drinks or uses narcotic drugs, then the risk of developing defects in babies is high. After all, during pregnancy, together with her mother takes drugs and the fetus itself, even if not even that.

The second common cause is chemical poisoning. They can be a disgusting environmental situation in the place of residence of the child and mother.

Often, after the strongest poisoning, a woman subsequently gives birth to children with vices. For example, after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, often children from the exclusion zone were born children with a wolf's mouth.

No matter what they later lead a lifestyle, their body remains poisoned by the strongest radioactive substances.

Less popular reasons include:

  • improper nutrition of pregnant mom;
  • abdominal damage during pregnancy (shocks, severe shocks, accidents);
  • a large number of abortions;
  • sunstroke;
  • heredity;
  • smoking;
  • age of the pregnant woman is over 35;
  • excess weight;
  • constant stress;
  • taking potent drugs.

Despite such a wide list of causes, as many as 30% of cases the appearance of a baby with an inborn wolf mouth or cleft lip, doctors throw up their hands, not even suggesting why such a serious defect has occurred.

The disease is still being studied, but one thing is certain. Mother during pregnancy should be extremely attentive and cautious, to protect her baby, starting with the womb.

Manifestations of the disease

The causes of the problem may be different. And they, of course, difficult to identify, if they are not so obvious. For example, there are no problems with alcohol, overweight or narcotic drugs. As for the manifestations of the disease, they are typical for all babies. They can be easily recognized by understanding that the infant has hidden defects.

It is worth paying attention to the fact that mothers are told about the presence of problems in a child even at the first ultrasound.

Fortunately, at present, specialists and modern equipment are so highly qualified that the problem can be diagnosed at an early stage, namely during the time when the fetus is in the body.

  1. The most obvious and clear manifestation is called cheilhosis.
    It is a hole in the tissue of the upper lip. Such a manifestation can be of different color and intensity, can be from barely noticeable to pronounced and characteristic. In this regard, there are serious problems associated with how to feed. There are special devices that help the child to eat.
  2. Wolf's mouth is not always noticeable during the initial external examination.
    But as soon as the baby opens his mouth, it becomes clear that he has health problems. There is a splitting of the tissues of the upper sky. In almost all cases, this is fraught with health problems, namely respiratory and nutritional disorders.

Defects of this nature are dangerous attendant problems. Often the baby is experiencing difficulty with speech, otitis, sinusitis, sinusitis and mental disorders.

Defect Types

It is customary to distinguish defects depending on certain criteria. These or other lesions affect all structures of the child’s brain and parts of its face in different ways.

According to the place of distribution:

  • cleft lip;
  • cleft lip;
  • splitting of the upper and lower lips.

Side localization:

  • left-hand side;
  • two-way localization.

By the nature of the manifestation:

  • complete, in which all defects are pronounced. In this case, the baby has many health problems.
  • partial, which may be barely noticeable and in no way interfere with the normal functioning of the child’s organs.

By gravity strain:

  • mild degree;
  • medium degree;
  • heavy degree.

The latter often leads to death, because the baby can not breathe, eat. Over time, he is affected and the brain.

The classification of cleavage of the sky (cleft palate)

Wolf mouth is usually classified in a slightly different way. All these signs can be revealed independently, having carried out careful survey of the face of the kid.

External signs:

  • open and wide cleft - not only the upper palate is considered to be touched, but also localization to the front incisor.
  • hidden cleft - it appears only externally, looking at the lip, but if you open your mouth, you can make sure that everything else is in a holistic form.

The nature of severity:

  • bright and strong, which involves the maximum amount of tissue areas;
  • average;
  • low.

In addition, complication can be added to the standard classification. For example, a cleft lip may be accompanied by otitis or sinusitis. But the wolf's mouth is often accompanied by characteristic mental disorders.

Diagnostics

Determining the nature of the disease occurs during pregnancy. Modern ultrasound machines can determine the presence of problems already in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. But it can only be a guess. Unfortunately, an exact diagnosis can be made only after the child is born.

At this time, the newborn is immediately examined by specialists for the presence of health problems and can not only diagnose a wolf's mouth or cleft lip, but also determine the nature of the problem.

  1. X-ray of the face in order to determine the nature of the problem.
  2. The hearing study is conducted to identify certain complications that are possible in the presence of the above malformations.
  3. Smell - often it is completely absent or partially lost when the nasal region is damaged.
  4. A blood test is taken to identify blood structure disorders.

What is dangerous?

It is extremely difficult to pass the first days of children with a wolf's mouth. They are subject to many diseases that accompany the main problem. Since the child is constantly with his mouth open, his mouth is not sufficiently hydrated, which constantly receives a large number of infections and microbes.

In the future, the child’s speech is distorted. The voice becomes nasal as the baby speaks with the wrong vibration. It comes out not so much from the mouth as from the nose.

While eating food, food can flow not only into the esophagus, but also be sent through the warped channels to the organs of hearing. Which in turn provokes various infections and diseases of the ear cavity.

Eating is a difficult exercise for a child. Since he cannot suck normally from the first days of his life, caries, abnormal occlusion and problems associated with the digestive tract immediately begin to develop.

In addition, the obvious danger is socialization in society. Even a child can recognize a wolf's mouth and a cleft lip. Therefore, these children have a hard time next to their healthy peers.

As a rule, children become withdrawn and often aggressive. Later it is hard for them to find themselves in life and enjoy it. The task of parents is not only to provide the child with normal development, maturation, but also to help find himself in society, socialize, accept his problem.

Pathology treatment

First of all, parents are interested in whether it is possible to get rid of this pathology. Whether it is amenable to adjustment and treatment. Note that the treatment of the mouth of the wolf and, fortunately, you can get rid of it.

Healing is performed only surgically. No popular methods, creams, pills and ointments will help you. It is necessary to restore the normal maxillofacial condition of the human body. This will help surgeons who will perform the operation. It is carried out in several simple steps.

Preoperative preparation

First of all, the child must be prepared for the operation.

This means that parents will have to take care of the baby:

  1. He did not catch colds a few weeks before the surgery.
    Ventilate the room, go out only with respiratory shawls, try not to be in places where a large number of people gather.
  2. Adjust your child to a favorable outcome.
    This is done for older children. But for babies, it is imperative to have a confident and strong mother next to you, who doesn’t worry about what is happening and knows that everything will definitely be fine.
  3. Perform proper feeding with a probe so that food particles do not get into the ears or nose.

Types of operations

There are several types of surgery that are applied depending on the age of the child and the nature of the problem.

In the early days, doctors advise resorting to cycle plastic. Thanks to it, the problem is eliminated and it grows together after the soft palate.

More complex surgery is considered uranoplasty. She is able to eliminate more serious health problems. The operation is carried out in several stages by experienced specialists.

Care after surgery

The postoperative period lasts on average 10-14 days. All this time, parents need to monitor the child's bed rest. He is not allowed any load, excessive overheating, or vice versa frostbite.

Throughout the time, the child is forbidden to talk. However, parents must carry out articulation movements together with their children, which will help in the speedy recovery.

In addition to bed rest and exercises, a special diet is prescribed, consisting only of liquid foods. At the same time, it will be possible to eat only with the use of special means. Subsequently, it will be replaced by ordinary food.

Contraindications and complications

Unfortunately, not in all cases, specialists can carry out such operations. They are contraindicated in case of health problems in a child:

  • heart disease;
  • pneumonia;
  • anemia;
  • organ damage.

As complications after surgery, seam rupture and tissue necrosis are identified. These complications will be identified already in the rehabilitation period. You can contact a specialist again to help solve the problem.

Forecast and features of baby care

A full recovery after a wolf mouth operation can only be discussed after at least 3-4 months. At this time, the seams overgrow. The kid learns to live with a new mouth, lips. He begins to feel his sky and learns a completely different diet.

Often there is a deep scar on the lip, but it does not interfere after normal socialization. As a rule, these children are sent to the most ordinary schools, where they attend classes at the level with everyone. They are not contraindicated in sports or developmental activities.

Only the surgeon performing the operation can forecast the baby. He can say with accuracy what the period of your recovery will be and how it will affect the normal life of the child in the future.

Total

The wolf's mouth in children, although it looks terrifying and terrible, can still be cured. This will require skilled medical care and support from parents.

Such a complex can solve the problem by surgery. And with the help of mom and dad's support, the child will learn to live a full life and exist in society.

Watch the video: Explaining Cleft Lip and Palate 1 of 7 (October 2019).

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