The school is the first serious educational institution in the life of a child. It differs significantly from kindergarten, where children spend most of their time playing and interacting with their peers. At school, the situation is quite different.
Most of the time is devoted to the educational process, during which children acquire new knowledge, skills and experience. The last year in kindergarten is a kind of milestone, during which the child should be prepared for school psychologically and give him the necessary knowledge.
What should a child know and be able to do before entering school?
There is a specific set of requirements that a preschooler must meet when preparing to go to an educational institution.
If the child has all the knowledge and skills, then parents should not worry about how he will go to school.
- Know your last name, first name, middle name. Know the contact details (last name, first name, patronymic, place of residence and work) of their parents.
- Know the city and the country in which the child lives. Understand how the city differs from the region, country, village.
- Know the names of animals, be able to differentiate them into categories. For example, a shark is a fish, but an eagle is a bird.
- Know what time of year it is. Understand time periods, the number of months in a year. It is unmistakable to determine that October is autumn, and March-spring.
- The names of common flowers and plants.
- Names of sports, to understand what is their difference.
- To be able to talk about different professions, briefly specifying what a person is doing in a particular activity.
- Traffic Laws.
- Basic geometric shapes.
- Know the letters and numbers.
- Have an understanding of the rules of writing.
- To be able to read small texts by syllables.
You can understand that the list is actually rather big. The way it is. Therefore, parents should take care in advance that the child gradually mastered the necessary knowledge. In fact, very often adults make the mistake of sending your baby a few months before school for extra classes.
It will be difficult for a child to receive such a large amount of information, to master and understand it. If you want the adaptation period at school to pass as little as possible and your crumb has succeeded, then start preparing for the educational process long before 7 years of age.
Methods of preparing children for school
Scientists have developed special techniques that will help your children prepare for school. In order to pick one of the tactics, you should know how they differ between themselves.
The strategy is based on natural learning. A child should not memorize or learn something. In the course of light regular classes, he remembers the necessary things.
The main characteristic of the Zaitsev technique is that all training takes place in the form of a game. For example, you need cubes on which letters or numbers are written. You can build a pyramid of cubes, gradually laying the numbers from 1 to 10.
Games associated with this technique, you can think of many. The strategy is not limited to cubes. It can also manifest itself in the form of songs, tips and funny rhymes that every child will remember with pleasure.
A child is allowed to behave in the most comfortable way during classes. That is, he should not just sit at the desk. Children often lie on the floor, periodically go. It seems that they are distracted, in fact, it is just hard for them to sit so long.
And in active movement the child will be able to assimilate and remember the information. In addition, the game will be associated with a lot of positive emotions that will be associated with further learning.
It is safe to be called the most popular method - the tactic proposed by Maria Montessori. Her main interest is group study. During the Montessori teaching method, the child is never left alone, face to face with the teacher. The group is not formed according to the age principle.
Very often in a similar group, children from 2 to 6 years. In this case, each in it develops in its own way. Younger children look after their elders, trying to copy their behavior. Older children take care of younger ones, thereby developing certain character traits.
Montessori encourages the child to give freedom of choice in his actions. For example, there is no clear and planned schedule for what he should do. Before him should always be a choice. For example, on the table is a jar with pencils and a box of clay. Any tiny one will decide for itself what it is best for him to do at the moment.
Nikitin assures that the most effective approach to learning is not to insist on learning, but only to push the child towards it. For example, adults should not constantly indicate that now is the time to learn letters or numbers.
If a competent parent notices that his child is interested in letters, then he immediately supplies the child with cubes with letters, speaking the alphabet. Accordingly, the role of adults is to be bystanders. At any convenient time, provide the child with the opportunity to develop independently.
In addition, Nikitins argue that sport is obligatory in education. Every day, teach your crumb to work and an active lifestyle. It is believed that without a sports activity, the human brain cannot fully function.
Preparatory classes for school
It is necessary to conduct educational activities with a son or daughter from an early age. The ideal option would be a gradual training to the educational process.
From 2-3 years old, you can sit down a child and ask him to draw with you, learn letters or numbers. At the same time, training should be carried out unobtrusively so as not to frighten your baby.
Children receive a certain set of knowledge in kindergartens. However, it is not enough to go to school with him. It is necessary to strengthen all the knowledge gained and for this will suit both a home tutor, courses, and classes with parents.
Previously, absolutely all the children were engaged with their parents. Now this practice fades into the background, all thicket adults resort to the help of special children's centers or tutors.
School preparation courses
Currently, courses that help prepare for school are very popular. Among such a wide range, it is probably easy to get confused. Many adults base their choice on the pricing policy of a school, distance from home.
In fact, the main criteria by which to choose should be the method by which the training and teaching staff are carried out.
The best and ideal option will be to go to training courses at the school where you go with the child. This will help you prepare in advance with the class teacher (as a rule, it is they who conduct such classes).
In addition, you will be sure that you have a qualified teacher with a real diploma. An additional advantage will be the low price. The child adapts faster in school from the beginning of the school year, because he will get into it much earlier.
As for non-state schools and courses, the question here is much more complicated. It is necessary to choose the school that will have a proven license, good teaching staff and have a lot of work experience.
It is better to go to a non-government institution on the advice of friends and acquaintances whose children have successfully completed school preparation and had a positive result. In other cases, you run the risk of encountering fraudsters who decide to make money on you.
Good for doing only one student. As a rule, tutors come to the house to their students. Accordingly, the child will not have to carry anywhere. Knowledge is absorbed in a large amount, because the teacher deals with only one child.
However, this way has its drawbacks. The kid does not learn to be in a team, communicate with peers and understand how to behave in school.
A preschool tutor is suitable as an additional or reinforced preparation for school. But still, the ideal option can be called specialized courses, where the atmosphere of the school reigns, to which the child should be accustomed.
How much does it cost to prepare a child for school?
The price of preparatory classes varies depending on the status of the educational institution, city of residence. In the regions, such kusy will be much cheaper than in large cities. However, due to the high competition prices do not rise so quickly.
One lesson can cost from 250 rubles to 2000 rubles. If you decide to save, then for you the best option would be a public educational school. It represents the lowest price for services rendered. In addition, the amount often depends on the number of people in a group.
If your child holds individual lessons, then their cost will increase dramatically.
Absolutely every parent wants to give the crumbs for free training. Unfortunately, such specialized courses and schools you simply can not find.
However, do not forget about other opportunities for children:
- A kindergarten teacher in senior groups conducts general education classes in which children learn colors, numbers, letters, and geometric shapes.
Parents do not pay for such classes. This is included in the fees for kindergarten. But this form of education cannot be said to be the only correct one, since children are in a playful environment and may simply not react to the need to reorganize and listen to the teacher. Accordingly, in groups one can notice that some children understood that they studied the letter today, while others simply got distracted and did not even hear.
- Self-study with parents - regardless of what type of occupation adults choose, it is necessary to consolidate their knowledge.
It is not necessary to take the child by pressure. Parents can be smart and ask the kid to play at school, tell them what they have learned in extra classes. The child, feeling his superiority, will gladly be involved in the game you have planned.
How to prepare a child for school by yourself?
If parents have the desire, ability, time and patience, then they can easily prepare their children for school on their own. Of course, the downside will be the lack of teacher education.
No matter how clever a person is, not everyone can teach children. If you understand that you can not give basic knowledge to your child, it is better to trust a professional. If you feel the strength and desire behind you, then try to start homework yourself.
How to start training?
It is necessary to start from an early age. For all, it is individual. As soon as you understand that the baby can and is able to talk, express his thoughts, express wishes, you can proceed to the preparation. For girls, as a rule, this is the age of 2-3 years, for boys - 3-4 years.
Preparation start with basic things: drawing, modeling, crafts. It seems to you that they are not related to school. In fact, this game form helps the child to teach perseverance and develop certain hemispheres of the brain. For example, thanks to the molding, the child develops fine motor skills of the hands and learn to talk.
Do not invent classes daily. Write a program for the next six months or a year. In her set realistic and realistic goals. For example, for a 3 year old child learn to distinguish colors, learn geometric shapes. Well, if in parallel the kid can memorize certain letters, it will already be an advantage.
Set goals that are suitable for the age and characteristics of your child. Some children are initially more assiduous and calm. The educational process will be much easier for them. Others, on the contrary, are more energetic. For them, great progress will be to learn to sit without jumping on the chair after 15 minutes.
To conduct a full educational process with the baby, it is necessary to provide him with a large number of materials. These should be colored pencils, felt-tip pens, paints, plasticine, colored paper and scissors.
The more material for creativity you can provide, the greater the range of lessons you can come up with in the future.
In order not to teach blindly, you should read the training materials in advance. Fortunately, there are plenty of them on the Internet. You can download both step-by-step training, and make your own, taking into account the individual characteristics of the child and the available examples before his eyes.
Games for preparing for school preschoolers
Everyone knows that children learn information much better and faster if they receive it in the process of playing activities.
The game will be especially effective with competitive spirit. For example, have your child find all pets in the book, count their number. Compete a daughter or son will be with adults. Provide a sweet prize as a prize.
The task can be complicated if the crumb knows the letters. Invite him to find in the book 5 words beginning with the letter “B”. Be sure and an adult should participate in this game. Then the baby will get the correct idea that this is an interesting pastime, and not compulsory memorization of letters and numbers.
The developmental classes themselves must be constructed in such a way that they are:
For example, one day you sculpt from clay. On the second day, learn the letters. It turns out that at an early age, the attitude is laid not only to learning, but also to the knowledge of the surrounding world.
With the pressure and diligence, shouting and cursing this cognitive activity can be frightened. Therefore, it is worthwhile to act gently, not to put pressure on the child, but to offer, direct, and then you will be able to engage the educational process in place, and not to force you to study. Further adaptation in school and success will depend on this.
How to psychologically prepare a child for school?
An important factor is the psychological preparation of the child. Most of all, children get scared in school by a large number of people. As a rule, the crumbs that go through home schooling and do not go to kindergarten are the hardest to adjust.
Explain to your child in advance how to communicate with peers. Try to visit the playgrounds more often, where the son or daughter will make acquaintances. Communication with new people is the first time that can be the most interesting in all school activities.
If the child does not converge well with others, does not make contact, then try to help him with this. Before school, determine on additional classes. For example, drawing or vocals, where the crumb can make friends and understand that you should not be afraid of others.
Useful exercises when teaching a preschooler
Parents can always spend time with the baby with benefit. For this you need to learn a few exercises that will help prepare for an educational institution.
It is important not only to teach how to write and count, but also to develop logical thinking.
You can do this from the age of 3 with the most simple and easy exercises.
- find an extra thing among a number of objects;
- from the proposed images to make a full story;
- divide all items according to common features;
- finish the proposed story.
Such exercises can be done, even while in the queue and thereby entertaining the baby. Again, you should not forcefully do the exercises. Everything should be easy and relaxed.
The development of fine motor skills
Already by 6 years the formation of fine motor skills is completed. Therefore, the development of muscles should take care in advance.
Develop fine motor skills using:
- finger games.
It is possible to instill a love for crafts and modeling of plasticine only by your own example. At first, parents need to sit down with their baby and make simple figures.
We are preparing the foundation for mathematical knowledge
It is proved that the most school subject in school is mathematics. It is worth adding that it is also one of the important items that are necessary for a person throughout his life.
Math for preschoolers
Try to teach your child to count all the time. To do this, count everything around yourself, give your child some simple instructions. For example, count how many candies are left in the package, divide them exactly into all family members. When you go home, feel free to count the steps.
Such mathematics in the form of a game will appeal to a child.
Orientation in space
Preschooler must understand and be aware of prepositions that will help to navigate in space. 1-2 years before the school, it is necessary to distinguish between "above-above", "near-near", "above-below" and so on.
The basics that children learn while still in kindergarten. Initially, babies recognize the most simple shapes: a circle, a square, a triangle. Затем к ним присоединяются все более новые и сложные формы. Изучение геометрических фигур также можно сделать максимально легким и увлекательным.
Classes for preparing for school for preschoolers need to start from a very early age. Then the child will not feel such a strong psychological and emotional stress in the last year before school.
Conduct classes and at home, every day in a game form explaining to your crumbs certain objects of reality.